“Jesus is Kind of Like a Buddha, Right?”

This post was sponsored by Johnny Trovato. If you’re interested in submitting topics for the blog, or just like my writing and want to sponsor Ogiue Maniax, check out my Patreon.

It is a somewhat common mistake to assume that Japan as a wholly foreign and alien culture despite events such as the influence of China on its development, the appearance of Commodore Perry, and various interactions with nations such as Portugal and the Netherlands. However, no matter where it comes from, Japan’s own history can be considered unique (and just about any culture or area can say the same), and there are certain implicit and assumed elements that can permeate Japanese culture.

I was asked by Johnny Trovato to address broadly the subject of how theological differences between Japan and countries with more of a Christian history affect how anime and manga are viewed. Truth be told, even though I’ve watched plenty of series which reference religion and spirituality such as Neon Genesis Evangelion, Inari Kon Kon Koi Iroha, and Hermes: Winds of Love (don’t watch that last one), I’m not really an expert on the subject. I originally planned on tackling the subject from a fairly limited perspective, but fortunately I recently discovered a book called Holy Ghosts: The Christian Century in Modern Japanese Fiction by Rebecca Sutter. While it’s not quite on the subject of Japanese religions and beliefs, it did help me to realize an aspect of Japanese culture, media, and literature that I believe sheds a bit of light on how religious beliefs are used in anime and manga.

One of the more major lessons I took away from reading Holy Ghosts is that Japan has historically approached religion in a rather pragmatic way. Shintoist, Buddhist, and Confucian beliefs exist together in Japan, but only as far as they’re convenient. When Portuguese Jesuits arrived in Japan and sought to convert its people, not only did the Japanese sometimes interpret Jesus as a kind of “Buddha” that conformed to their own polytheistic views, but many of the daimyo who converted did so because the Portuguese also sold firearms. Spirituality exists, but it has existed to to serve the people, rather than having people be absolutely beholden to one or more gods. Even the idea of the Emperor as god was a response to the prominence of other religious beliefs being used as tools to control territory.

To take what is probably too big of a leap into the present day, I think we can still see this tendency at work when it comes to the utilization of religious aspects in anime. Evangelion famously features Christian imagery and mythology mainly as a way to provide something fairly exotic to Japanese viewers, while Spirited Away is just as much about encouraging young people to rediscover nature regardless of overt spirituality. This, I believe, is where a good deal of the confusion or dissonance might lie when it comes to how people in the United States and other traditionally Christian cultures interact with anime. Of course, not every person who lives in those countries is necessarily religious, and there has been plenty of media that plays fast and loose with the Bible, from Bruce Almighty to Teen Angel (I still love that show, by the way), but often there’s some kind of counter-play with the assumption that many people know at least the basics of Christianity and that there are plenty who firmly believe in its tenets.

I’m going to use two examples of media, one from the US, and one from Japan. Xena: Warrior Princess was a popular show when it aired. Having begun as a spinoff of Hercules: The Legendary Journey, it at first focused mainly on ancient Greece and the presence of Greek Gods. Eventually though, they decided to branch off and include Christianity in the show. Xena meets both David and Jesus, and any historian would probably tell you that it makes no sense. It didn’t matter in the show itself to a certain degree, but it was directly up against the value of Christianity in the US, and how accurate or (intentionally inaccurate) a work it was factored into how it was perceived.

Now contrast this with Devilman, the story of a teenager who gains the power of a devil so that he can fight other demons. Its creator, Nagai Go, stated that he designed Devilman to resemble a bat, even though that’s not quite the imagery people in countries more familiar with the idea of Satan and Hell would utilize. Eventually Satan himself appears, and he turns out to be a hermaphrodite because Lucifer has been described in some texts as being as such. However, the main value of Lucifer’s dual-gender appearance is visceral shock, and Devilman as a whole didn’t have to take into account how much its readers would be going to church every Sunday. Devilman, if I recall correctly, also mixes in various spiritual beliefs including Japanese ones, and it all effectively works to (on a somewhat pragmatic level) help the story along.

The idea that religion isn’t this overwhelmingly powerful subject in Japanese culture and society isn’t necessarily shared by all who live there, of course, but I think there’s a lot in the old adage that says, in Japan, you have a Shinto birth, a Christian wedding, and a Buddhist funeral. That synthesis of beliefs and the ability to mold them into whatever you want defies the idea of religion as this overwhelming, monolithic thing that cannot ever be altered, and anime and manga are proof of that.

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9 thoughts on ““Jesus is Kind of Like a Buddha, Right?”

  1. I’ve seen a few anime fanfics that’ll refer to a character being “Shinto”, in the sense that someone might be Christian or Jewish or Muslim. That’s never fit well with my understanding of how religion works in Japan — it sounds to me more like a piece of clothing that you might put on or take off at your convenience, rather than something carved into your body.

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  2. 15 something years ago, the now vanished (aka) Mary Jeanne Johnson played a bit with this. Have always been looking for an excuse to drag it into the light of day, so please forgive the kibbitzing. PS: Current whereabouts unknown, she shut down her alias in 2003-4 and vanished. One suggestion is that she moved to Tokyo and became an editor. Her 2 posts, via The Archive:

    web.archive.org/web/20080517082242/http://www.aestheticism.com/visitors/editor/jeanne/DesignerChristianity ADD DOT HTM

    and

    web.archive.org/web/20080517043114/http://www.aestheticism.com/visitors/editor/jeanne/angels ADD DOT HTM

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  3. Japan’s always been the a bit interesting when it comes to religion. The whole country has a lot of shrines and temples, and yet if you ask most Japanese people, they’ll say they personally don’t belong to a religion. Religion there seems to be more about ritual than belief, and people seem suspicious of Western-style religion.
    Then again, Portuguese missionaries were a factor in the closing of Japan in the 1600s, and there was the whole emperor worship thing during WWII so I can’t say I really blame them…

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  4. Hmm… I’d say that the Japanese and we Vietnamese have something in common: We’re not that into all the philosophy. Or, in sort, our focus is not the fundamental relationship between Human and God, or the intergrating of religion in all aspects of life (a.k.a caliphate), but rather the relationship between human and his existing (material life) – a leftover trace of the practive of old harvesting religions.

    And we take death similar to coming home after a journey.

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  5. Pingback: Something More: Plastic Religious Memories, Steins;gate Heaven, and Sinful Pokemon |

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